Ureteral Cancer

Definition Cancer of the ureter is cancer that develops in the cells that line the inside of the tubes that connect your kidneys to your bladder (ureters). Ureters are part of your urinary tract, and they carry urine produced by your kidneys to your bladder. It is essentially the same…

Kidney Cancer

Definition Kidney cancer is cancer that originates in your kidneys, the two bean-shaped organs located behind your abdominal organs on either side of your spine. The two most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. These names indicate the type…

Head and Neck Cancer

Definition Cancers that are known collectively as ‘head and neck cancers’ usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside your head or neck -- for example, inside your mouth, nose, and throat. Head and neck cancers also can begin in the salivary glands, but salivary…

ALS Parkinsonism Dementia Complex

Definition ALS Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) is a neurodegenerative, invariably fatal, disorder known to occur primarily on the island of Guam, the Kii peninsula of Japan, and the coastal plain of West New Guinea. A few cases have been documented elsewhere. The Chamorros of Guam call the disease ‘lytico-bodig.’ Lytico-bodig…

Oligodendroglioma Brain Cancer

Definition Oligodendroglioma brain cancer is a rare, slow growing tumor that initially consists of oligodendrocytes, which are cells that cover and protect the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Because of their generally slow growth, oligodendrogliomas often are present for years before they are diagnosed. These tumors can…

Liver Cancer

Definition Liver cancer, or hepatic cancer, begins in the cells of your liver, a football-sized organ located in the upper right area of your abdomen. The malignancy can originate in the liver itself or from structures within the liver, including blood vessels or the bile duct. The most common form…

Gallbladder Cancer

Definition Gallbladder cancers include cancers that develop in tissues of the gallbladder and the bile ducts in the liver (biliary system). Gallbladder cancer occurs when malignant cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. It begins in the innermost layer of tissue and spreads through the outer layers as it…

Breast Cancer

Definition Breast cancer is cancer that develops from the breast tissue. It most commonly develops in cells from the lining of your milk ducts, and the lobules that supply your ducts with milk. Cancers that develop from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas. Cancers that develop from the lobules…
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